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Centrifuges

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Centrifuges

Centrifuges: Separating Mixtures with Force

 

What are Centrifuges?

Centrifuges are machines that use centrifugal force to separate mixtures. By spinning a mixture at high speeds in a container, centrifuges can separate fluids with different densities, like cream from milk, or separate liquids from solids.

How Centrifuges Work

When a centrifuge spins, it applies a force outward (radially). Denser materials move outward due to this force, while less dense elements move inward. In a lab centrifuge, this force pushes denser particles to settle at the bottom of the tube, while less dense materials rise to the top.

Applications

  • Industrial: Large centrifuges are used in manufacturing and waste processing to separate liquids or solids.
  • High-Performance: Ultra-high-speed centrifuges can separate tiny particles and molecules.
  • Specialized: Large centrifuges can simulate high-gravity environments, and medium-sized centrifuges are used in washing machines and some pools. Gas centrifuges separate isotopes for nuclear fuel enrichment.

History of the Centrifuge

The concept of a centrifuge dates back to the 19th century with the invention of a hand-cranked lab centrifuge. The idea of a dairy centrifuge to separate cream from milk was proposed in 1864, and a working machine was developed in 1875.

Types of Centrifuges

Centrifuges are categorized by design or use: Decanter, Basket, Disc Stack, Pusher & Peeler

  • Rotor Design:
    • Fixed-angle: Hold samples at a constant angle.
    • Swinging head: Samples swing outwards during operation.
    • Continuous tubular: No individual sample vessels, for high-volume applications.
  • Intended Use:
    • Laboratory: General-purpose centrifuges for various tasks.
    • Analytical: Designed for specific analysis of molecules.
    • Haematocrit: Measures red blood cell volume in whole blood.
    • Gas: Used for isotope separation in gases.
    • Industrial: Classified based on the separation method.

Filtration vs. Sedimentation Centrifuges

There are two main types of centrifuges:

  • Filtration: These centrifuges use a perforated drum with a filter to separate liquids from solids.
  • Sedimentation: These centrifuges have a solid wall drum and are used to purify suspensions.

Modern Centrifuges

In Case Of An Emergency Breakdown

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Houston, TX Location

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7650 County Rd 48 unit C,
Rosharon, TX 77583

Chicago, IL Location

T + 1-773-617-0937
E: deals@centrifugeworld.com
9212 Cherry Ave,
Franklin Park, IL 60131

Alsip, IL Location

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12340 S Keeler Ave,
Alsip, IL 60803